Need For Aircraft Lighting

Lighting in an aircraft is another very important parameter that contributes to the safety of the aircraft. If you are driving your car at night without any lights on a dark road ,there is a risk factor involved no matter how skilled a driver you might be.The same applies in aviation, pilots are taught emergency procedures for example a “lights out” landing that is landing without lights during their training in case a need arises for them to deal with it.

Hence it becomes incredibly important for us as aviators to understand the lights installed in our aircraft, the positioning of lights around the plane, their appropriate time of use and the most important that is what if they stop working?. In this post well be looking at the lights installed in an Airbus 320 as I am familiar with the aircraft but most lights in any aircraft always remain the same as a need for uniformity.

Types of Lights Installed

picture credits: Pinterest


  1. The strobe lights are three synchronized flashing lights that are located one on each wing and below the tail cone.
  2. The strobe lights are very bright and flashy and are basically used for identification in the sky.
  3. They are switched ON only when aligned with the runway for take off and switched OFF after exiting the runway at the destination aerodrome.
  4. The strobe lights are not used during taxi as it disrupts the pilots front view if there is an aircraft ahead of him with its strobe lights ON.
  5. In the Airbus 320, there is an AUTO position that enables the strobe lights to be OFF when the landing gear is compressed. This means that if the switch is in the AUTO position, the strobe lights would come ON once airborne and go OFF after landing.
Picture Credit:Aviation technic


  1. Navigation Lights are a compulsion for night flying.
  2. They are also known as position lights as they do not really help pilots in navigation but help determine the relative position of another aircraft in the air.
  3. The navigation lights consists of a steady green light on the right side/ starboard side of the wing and a steady red light on the left side/port side of the wing and a steady white light on the tail of the aircraft.
    • To help remember this, I was taught port wine is red in color.It means that red color light on the left/port side .
  4. To make sure these lights are visible through all directions on the ground and in flight, each light covers a certain angle to be visible according to the ICAO annex 6 that is “OPERATIONS OF AIRCRAFT”. The coverage angles are:
    • A red light projected above and below the horizontal plane on the left side so that it covers 110 degrees.
    • A green light projected above and below the horizontal plane on the right side so that it covers 110 degrees.
    • A white light projected above and below the horizontal plane rearward so that it covers an angle of 140 degrees.
  5. Therefore if you are flying and you see a steady white light ahead of you, it would mean that you are looking at the tail of another aircraft.
  6. The navigation lights help us determining the right of way as well.
    • Looking at figure A below, aircraft A can observe the can view the red light coming from the port side of aircraft B. This helps the pilot of aircraft A to understand that aircraft B has the right of way and it has to stop until clear of the aircraft B .


  1. Logo lights are generally mounted on the upper surface of the horizontal stabilizer and are used for company branding purposes as the lights point towards the company logo painted on the tail fin.
  2. However, the main purpose for the logo lights as all other lights is safety.
    • For example, when an aircraft is on approach, it becomes easier for the aircraft at the holding point to identify the aircraft with the logo light as it gives a 90 degree view.
  3. In the Airbus 320, the logo light is switched on with the navigational light and there is no separate switch for it.
pic credits:IVAO


  1. Wing lights are beam lights fitted on each side of the fuselage and provide lighting on the wing leading edges and on engine air intake.
  2. The main purpose of these lights are to help flight crew, cabin crew and ground personnel detect ice accretion.
  3. The wing lights are also to help detect wing or engine damage and are specially helpful during night operations because of their high beam.


  1. Beacon lights also known as anti collision lights are pulsating red lights fitted on the top and bottom of the fuselage.
  2. The beacon lights in the Airbus 320 are to be switched ON before the engine is started and therefore is included in the before start checklist.
  3. Based on point number 2, it becomes clear that the beacon light also makes the ground personnel aware that the engine is about to be started and the aircraft is ready for push back.
  4. The beacon lights are then switched OFF after the engines have been shut down after landing.
  5. An anti collision is to fitted in an aircraft during night operation to attract attention.
pic credits: QUORA


  1. Taxi light is a bright white light connected to the nose gear strut and goes off automatically once the landing gear is retracted.
  2. As the name suggest, it helps improve the visibility for pilots while taxying and is generally turned ON once the taxi clearance is obtained from ATC.
  3. In the Airbus 320, there is a nose switch that consist of a taxi and takeoff light instead of separate ones but to only make sure the taxi light is ON the toggle switch can be placed to the taxi position as shown below.


  1. The take off light is connected to the nose strut gear and goes off automatically once the landing gear is retracted and is similar to the taxi light but has a wider beam than the taxi light.
  2. The take off light is switched ON just as we line up on the runway and as mentioned above the take off light will go off once the landing gear is up, it is necessary to place the nose switch to the OFF position manually.
picture credit: aviation stack exchange


  1. The runway turn off lights are placed just below the taxi and take off lights on the nose strut gear.
  2. The runway turn off lights point slightly left and right in comparison to the taxi and take off lights as they assist the pilots during turns on taxiways and light up the taxiway and runway edges.
  3. The runway turn off lights are turned ON before taxying and turned OFF just after take off , similar to the taxi lights.


  1. Landing lights are high intensity lights that illuminate the runway surface for take off and landing.
  2. These lights can be mounted on the wing, fuselage on landing gear strut. In the Airbus 320, the landing lights are mounted in the leading edge of the wing and hence they extend and retract in the wing.
  3. The lights control panel doe not have an on and off switch for landing lights.Instead it has an three position switch consisting of extend, retract and off.
  4. The landing lights are extended as soon as possible the take off clearance is obtained and retracted at a certain altitude for example 10,000 ft.Similarly, on arrival the landing lights are extended again at 10,000 ft and retracted immediately after landing.
  5. During night operations, it is necessary that your aircraft is installed with one landing light.


  1. If there is a light that is not operating before take off, you need to check the minimum equipment list to check if the aircraft is safe to take off without the lights not available.
  2. However, there are redundancies to this as well as if your aircraft has 2 navigation light systems then if one fails the other one can be used for operation.

FACT OF THE WEEK: KLM, The Royal Air Transport Company, was founded on October 7, 1909. It is the oldest airline in the world and the oldest still flying under its name. Although the first flight didn’t take to the skies until May 1920, KLM has been a major part of the international airline landscape.Throughout its nearly hundred years of existence, KLM’s commitment to innovation has been constant.This doesn’t just apply to its fleet either. The airline has also proved pioneering with its use of social media, introducing the first social media-driven flight schedule.

This is it for this weeks post.I hope you liked it and gained some knowledge out of the post. If you did please don’t forget to share it with your fellow aviators. Please feel free to share your views and any advice or recommendations on topics you would like to read. Until next week, stay safe and stay healthy.




Image Credits: Key Tech

Need for Airport Marking


Imagine yourself piloting your favorite aircraft out of Chicago O’Hare International Airport on a very busy afternoon for the first time and you’ve just received your taxi clearance, as you start to taxi there are no clear airport markings to guide you to the runway.If I was in your seat, I would be the most confused person at that airport.

A lot of things in Aviation require uniformity and standardization just like we discussed in Freedoms Of The Air.Hence, Airport Markings help enhance safety which is of prime importance and aids pilots avoid confusion during critical stages of flight that are taxi, take off and landing.

Types of Airport Markings

Airport markings are categorized mainly into :

  • Runway Markings
  • Taxiway Markings
  • Hold Position Markings
  • Other Markings
  • Mandatory Instruction Marking
  • Information Marking

Runway Markings


  1. A runway designation marking shall be provided at the thresholds of a paved runway. However it is also recommended on unpaved runways (grass, dirt, sand runways).
  2. A runway designation marking shall consist of a two-digit number and on parallel runways shall be supplemented with a letter.
    • For example, Runway 21 and in case of parallel runway runway 21 L or 21 R.
  3. On a single runway, dual parallel runways and triple parallel runways the two-digit number shall be the whole number nearest the one-tenth of the magnetic North when viewed from the direction of approach.
    • If The actual direction of the runway could be 206 degrees however we round it to the nearest one tenth whole number that is 210 degrees and hence runway 21.
    • If The actual direction of the runway could be 202 degrees however we round it to the nearest one tenth whole number that is 210 degrees and hence runway 20.
  4. On four or more parallel runways, one set of adjacent runways shall be numbered to the nearest one-tenth magnetic azimuth and the other set of adjacent runways numbered to the next nearest one-tenth of the magnetic azimuth.
    • For example, if we have four parallel runways of direction 202, 204, 206, 208 degrees we name one set of them as 20 R and 20 L and the other set as 21 R and 21 L.
  5. When the above rule would give a single digit number, it shall be preceded by a zero.
    • This simply means that we do not write 8 L and 8 R for runway designation instead it is designated as 08 L and 08 R.
  6. In the case of parallel runways, each runway designation number shall be supplemented by a letter as follows, in the order shown from left to right when viewed from the direction of approach:
    • for two parallel runways: “L” “R”;
    • — for three parallel runways: “L” “C” “R”;
    • — for four parallel runways: “L” “R” “L” “R”;
    • — for five parallel runways: “L” “C” “R” “L” “R” or “L” “R” “L” “C” “R”; and
    • — for six parallel runways: “L” “C” “R” “L” “C” “R”.


  1. A runway centre line marking shall be located along the centre line of the runway between the runway designation markings.
    • However at the intersection of two or more runways , priority is given to the more important runway markings except for the runway side strip markings.
  2. A runway centre line marking shall consist of a line of uniformly spaced stripes and gaps. The length of a stripe plus a gap shall be not less than 50 m or more than 75 m. The length of each stripe shall be at least equal to the length of the gap or 30 m, whichever is greater.
    • For example, the centre line marking can be 30 m long with a gap of 20 m between the next marking which makes it a total of 50 m however this total cannot exceed 75 m.


  1. A threshold marking shall be provided at the threshold of a paved instrument runway and also on a paved non instrument runway with code number 3 or 4 and the runway is intended for use by international commercial air transport.
  2. The stripes of the threshold marking shall commence 6 m from the threshold.
  3. A runway threshold marking shall consist of a pattern of longitudinal stripes of uniform dimensions disposed symmetrically about the centre line of a runway.
    • The number of stripes in a threshold marking depends on the width of the runway.



  1. Where a threshold is displaced from the extremity of a runway or where the extremity of a runway is not square with the runway centre line, a transverse stripe should be added to the the threshold.
    • displaced threshold  is a runway threshold located at a point other than the physical beginning or end of the runway.
    • A displaced threshold occurs due to runway repairs, obstructions and this results in the displaced part not being used for landing.
  2. A transverse stripe should be 1.80 M or more wide in length.
  3. Where a runway threshold is permanently displaced, arrows conforming shall be provided on the portion of the runway before the displaced threshold.
  4. When a runway threshold is temporarily displaced from the normal position, it shall be marked as shown in the figure below and all markings prior to the displaced threshold shall be obscured (make something difficult to observe) except the runway centre line marking, which shall be converted to arrows.


  1. A touchdown zone marking shall be provided in the touchdown zone of a paved precision approach runway.
  2. A touchdown zone marking shall consist of pairs of rectangular markings symmetrical from the runway centre line with the number of such pairs related to the landing distance available.
  3. The pair of touchdown zone markings shall be spaced at a distance of 150 M beginning from the threshold.



  1. A runway side stripe marking shall be provided between the thresholds of a paved runway where there is a lack of contrast between the runway edges and the shoulders or the surrounding terrain.
    • The runway side stripes help in providing a visual contrast between runway edges and the abutting terrain which sometimes could be tough to differentiate.
  2. The stripes are continuous white located on each side of the runway.



  1. Taxiway centre line marking shall be provided on a paved taxiway, de-icing/anti-icing facility and apron so as to provide guidance between the runway centre line and where the aircraft stands.
  2. Taxiway centre line marking shall be at least 15 cm in width and a single continuous yellow line except where it intersects with a runway-holding position marking or an intermediate holding position marking.
    • It should be noted that although the taxiway centre line markings keep the aircraft along the centre they do no provide wing tip clearance.


  1. Enhanced Taxiway Centre Line Markings should be provided to denote the proximity of runway holding position.
  2. They should also be installed at runway/ taxiway intersections if possible.
  3. If provided they shall extend from the runway hold position to a distance of up to 47 M in the direction of travel away from the runway.

Hold Position Markings


  1. The hold position markings on the taxiway are indications for the aircraft to stop before entering the runway .
  2. Air Traffic Clearance is required for aircraft’s to enter the runway however while exiting the runway to a taxiway, air traffic clearance is not needed unless stated by the controller.
  3. The hold position markings consist of 4 yellow lines, that is , 2 solid and 2 dashed and 3 spaces at 0.15 M each.


  1. Intermediate hold position markings are used at an intersection of two taxiways.
  2. It shall be located across the taxiway at sufficient distance from the near edge of the intersecting taxiway to ensure safe clearance between taxiing aircraft.
  3. An intermediate holding position marking shall consist of a single broken line.
  4. When instructed by ATC to hold at a particular taxiway, the aircraft must stop and not cross the intermediate hold position marking until advised by ATC.


  1. The ILS (more on the instrument landing system in a separate post) hold position marking consist of two yellow solid lines spaced two feet apart connected by pairs of solid lines spaced ten feet apart extending across the width of the taxiway as shown below.
  2. A sign with an inscription in white on a red background is located adjacent to these hold position markings.

Other Markings


  1. A VOR aerodrome checkpoint marking shall be centred on the spot at which an aircraft is to be parked to receive the correct VOR signal.
  2. A VOR aerodrome checkpoint marking shall consist of a circle 6 m in diameter and have a line width of 15 cm as shown below.
  3. These markings should be preferably white in color with a black border to provide contrast and necessary to be different from the taxiway color markings.


  1. Aircraft stand markings should be provided for designated parking positions on a paved apron and on a deicing/ anti icing facility.
  2. These markings should include information like stand identification, lead in line, turning line, stop line and lead out line.
  3. The lead in line should include stand identification information (number and/or alphabet) that is visible for the reader from the cockpit.
  4. When two sets of aircraft stand markings are superimposed on each other then to make it understandable for the pilot the aircraft identification should also be added with the markings.
    • For example, 2a-A320 AND 2b-B737.


  1. Apron safety lines should be provided on a paved apron as required by parking configurations and ground facilities.
  2. These markings define the areas to be used by ground vehicles and other aircraft servicing equipment and provide safe separation from aircraft’s such as wing tip clearance.
  3. The apron safety lines should continuous in length and 10 CM in width.


  1. A road holding position marking should be provided at all road entrances to a runway.
  2. These markings shall be in accordance with local road traffic regulations.

Mandatory Instruction Marking

  1. Mandatory Instruction Marking assist in prevention of runway incursions. A mandatory sign should be installed and in places where it is impracticable to install signs , mandatory markings are used.
  2. The markings on taxiways shall be equally located along the taxiway centre line and holding side of the runway holding position marking.
  3. The marking should consist of an inscription in white on a red background.
    • For example, “No ENTRY” written in white on red background for a no entry marking.

Information Marking

  1. Information Markings are helpful when there are complex taxiway intersections and when information signs are not available.
  2. An information marking shall consist of :
    • An inscription in yellow upon a black background, where it replaces or supplements a location sign.
    • An inscription in black upon a yellow background, where it replaces or supplements a direction or destination sign.

FACT FOR THE WEEK: Beijing Daxing International Airport (PKX) is the largest international airport in the world.With its opening in September 2019, it spans over 7.5 million square feet and took over 11 billion dollars to build it.Based on the starfish theme, it ensures convenience and eco friendliness.It takes about a total of 8 minutes for passengers to travel from security to their gate. The first phase of the airport project is designed with a target of 72 million passengers, 2 million tons of cargo and mail and 620,000 aircraft movements in the long term.

This is it for this weeks post. I hope you liked it and learnt something new from it. Please don”t forget to share it with your fellow aviators.Until next week, stay safe and stay healthy.



It was a cold windy morning when the Wright Brothers took out their flying machine from their sheds at the Kill Devils hills in North Carolina on the 17th of December 1903. At exactly 10:35 am, Orville Wright flew a distance of 120 feet and was airborne for approximately 12 seconds.The Wright Brothers used their successful glider to build this flying machine which they named the “FLYER“.However they had to increase the wing area considerably to install the engine and the propellers.

Orville Wright on the control of the FLYER as Wilbur Wright assists him . Credit:DAVID McCULLOUGH’S “THE WRIGHT BROTHERS”

If you are interested in knowing more about the Wright Brothers, I would highly recommend you to read “THE WRIGHT BROTHERS” by DAVID McCULLOUGH or visit

The “FLYER” certainly turned out to be one of the inventions of the century that led to the evolution of the aviation industry and the diversification of airplanes.This leads us to categorizing several airplanes and differentiating them further into various classes.

Please note that this post will not be covering information related to the ratings associated with different classes and please do not get confused between classes and type and their related ratings. I will cover the subject related to class and type ratings in a separate post.


According to the FAA, an aircraft category refers to the intended use or operating limits of a particular group of aircraft.The FAA then differentiates aircraft category by their characteristics and physical properties which are broken down with respect to the Certification of Airmen or with respect to Certification of Aircraft.

Certification Of Airmen

For purposes of ratings on a pilot certificate, there are SEVEN different aircraft categories:

1.AIRPLANE: An engine driven fixed wing aircraft heavier than air, that is supported in flight by the dynamic reaction of the air against its wings.In level flight, there are four forces acting on an airplane. the weight of it is counteracted by the lift produced by the wing and the drag is counteracted by the thrust developed from the engines.

2. ROTORCRAFT: It denotes a heavier than air aircraft that supports the dynamic reaction of the air against its rotors on a vertical axis.The rotor generates its lift by using the rotor blades.

3. POWERED LIFT: A heavier-than-air aircraft capable of vertical take-off, vertical landing, and low-speed flight, which depends principally on engine-driven lift devices or engine thrust for the lift during these flight regimes and on non-rotating aerofoil for lift during horizontal flight.They are a combination of an airplane for horizontal movement and rotorcraft for take off and landing.

4.GLIDER: A non power (without engines) driven heavier than air aircraft that derives its lift chiefly from aerodynamic reactions on surfaces that remain fixed under given conditions of flight.A paper plane made in school is the simplest example of a glider.The most obvious difference between a glider and an airplane is that the later flies without an engine and hence the drag created has to be counteracted by the lift in comparison to an airplane where the engine balances the drag.

5.LIGHTER THAN AIR: Any aircraft chiefly supported by its buoyancy in the air.These aircraft contain a sufficient volume of gas that is lighter than air which when heated creates the necessary lift required.

6.POWERED PARACHUTE: It is a powered aircraft comprised of a semi rigid or a flexible wing so that the wing is not in position until the aircraft is in motion.The fuselage consists of an engine, a seat and is attached to the aircraft landing gear.The thrust from the engine pushes the cart forward forces air into the leading edge of the wing resulting in an inflated and pressurized wing that helps to fly, as it keeps its airfoil shape.

Certification Of Aircraft

With respect to certification of aircraft, it is given in terms of intended use or operating limitations.According to the FAA, they are categorized as follows:

  • TRANSPORT: Multi-engine airplanes with more than 19 seats or a maximum takeoff weight greater than 19,000 lbs must be certificated in the transport category.
  • NORMAL: Aircraft with a maximum take off weight of 12,500 lbs (5700 kgs) and a seating capacity of 09 passenger seats.
  • UTILITY: Aircraft limited to limited acrobatic operations with a maximum take off weight of 12,500 lbs (5700 kgs) and passenger seating capacity of 09 seats.
  • ACROBATIC: Aircraft with no flight maneuver restrictions other than posted by flight tests.They have a maximum take off mass of 12,500 lbs (5700 kgs) and a passenger seating capacity of 09.
  • RESTRICTED: Operation of restricted category aircraft is restricted to special purposes identified in the applicable type design.These special purpose operations can be agricultural work, aerial advertising, forest surveying etc
  • LIMITED: A limited category special airworthiness certificate is issued to operate surplus military aircraft that have been converted to civilian use under guidelines mentioned by the regulatory.
  • PROVISIONAL: A provisional category special airworthiness certificate is issued to conduct special purpose operations of aircraft with provisional type certificates.Class I certificates may be issued for all categories and have a duration of 24 months.  Class II certificates are issued for transport category aircraft only and have a duration of 12 months.


Aircraft class relates to a broader grouping of aircraft having similar characteristics of propulsion, flight and landing.The categories of aircraft are therefore broken down into further classes.As mentioned earlier, the categories of aircraft are divided into certification of airmen and certification of aircraft.Both the categories will have their classes but we will be discussing the classes based on the category of airmen.

1.AIRPLANE: The airplane category is divided into 4 classes:


2.ROTORCRAFT: The rotorcraft category is divided into 2 classes:


3.POWERED LIFT:The powered lift category is not divided into classes.

4.GLIDER: The glider category is not divided into classes.

5.LIGHTER THAN AIR: The LTA aircraft are divided into 2 classes:


6.POWERED PARACHUTE: The category is divided into 2 classes:

  • Powered Parachute Land
  • Powered Parachute Sea

7.WEIGHT -SHIFT-CONTROL:The category is divided into 2 classes:

  • Weight shift control Land
  • Weight shift control Sea
Categories and Class of Aircraft

Every week we discuss a fun fact about aviation and this week we talk about Amelia Earhart.

FACT:Amelia Earhart became the first female aviator to fly solo across the Atlantic Ocean on the 20th OF May 1932.Earhart set off from Newfoundland, Canada in her single engine Lockheed Vega 5B. After a flight lasting 14 hours 56 minutes during which she contended off several problems, Earhart successfully landed in Northern Ireland. Earhart’s accomplishments in the field of aviation inspired a generation of female aviators to join the air force and continues to inspire female pilots around the globe #GIRLPOWER.

That is it for this week everyone.I hope you gained some knowledge from this weeks post and liked it as well.Please don’t forget to like and share it with your fellow aviators. I would love to know which category of aircraft do you fly or would love to fly in the comments below.Until next time stay safe and stay healthy.




The great Dalai Lama once said,“Once a year, go someplace you’ve never been before.”

The Second World War had a major effect on the strategic use of the aeroplanes for the movement of humans and cargo and thus laying the foundations of air travel .The question of commercial rights was raised for airlines of one country to fly in the other or through their territories.

Through the Chicago Convention held in 1944, the delegates of 52 nations agreed on the development of various policies for the commencement of civil aviation in a safe and orderly manner. One of the policies developers for commercial rights was ‘Freedoms Of The Air’

According to the Manual of Regulation of International Air Transport, the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) states a total of 9 Freedom of Air however the ICAO characterises the freedoms beyond the 5th freedom as ‘so called’ because only the first 5 freedoms have been officially recognised as such by international treaty.

So hence on today’s blog we’ll be discussing the first 5 freedoms of air.

The 5 freedoms are further divided into 2 categories

1.Technical or Transit Freedoms Of The Air

The first and second freedom of the air are included in this.

First Freedom of the Air – According to ICAO, the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State or States to fly across its territory without landing (also known as a First Freedom Right).

Explanation: It simply means that an airline is granted the rights to fly over another country without landing in it. For example, a flight from New Delhi to Melbourne would be given the rights to fly over Singapore or Malaysia and other countries on route . However obvious this may sound, technically each country owns the airspace above it and charges the airlines a fee to fly in that particular airspace also know an overflight fees .

To know more about overflight fees charged by India you can visit the following link:

Second Freedom of the Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State or States to land in its territory for non-traffic purposes (also known as a Second Freedom Right).

Explanation:The Second Freedom allows airlines the right to make a ‘technical stop’ at a country on route if required. For example, we take the same flight from Delhi to Melbourne and instead of flying over Singapore we land at the airport for refueling or other technical purposes and take off from Singapore for Melbourne.


2. Commercial Freedoms Of The Air.

The third, fourth and fifth freedom of the air are included in this.

Third Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to put down, in the territory of the first State, traffic coming from the home State of the carrier (also known as a Third Freedom Right).

Explanation:The Third Freedom is granted to almost all International Airlines.It gives the right to airlines to fly passengers and cargo from ones own country to another.For example, Air India can fly its passengers and cargo from Delhi to Singapore.

Fourth Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to take on, in the territory of the first State, traffic destined for the home State of the carrier (also known as a Fourth Freedom Right).

Explanation:The Fourth Freedom goes hand in hand with the above mentioned Third Freedom. It allows the airline to fly passengers and cargo from another country to its own country. For example, Air India would be allowed to take passengers and cargo from Singapore back to Delhi.

Fifth Freedom of The Air – the right or privilege, in respect of scheduled international air services, granted by one State to another State to put down and to take on, in the territory of the first State, traffic coming from or destined to a third State (also known as a Fifth Freedom Right).

Explanation:The Fifth Freedom offers airlines to fly passengers and cargo from one country to the second country, pick up more passengers or put down passengers and depart for the third country. For example, Air India flying from Delhi to Singapore and allowing more passengers to board at Singapore before departing for Melbourne.The Fifth and the Second freedom are very similar however Fifth Freedom allowing airliners more opportunity commercially.


As mentioned above, the first five freedoms we were the ones agreed in the freedoms treaty but the freedoms sixth to ninth are equally interesting and I would request you to have a quick look at them as well . You can find them at

At the end of every blog post I have decided to share a fun fact about Aviation in general.

FACT: On the 8th of August 1908, Wilbur Wright successfully completed his first public flight at Le Mans in France as the Wright Brothers showed off their flying machine. 08/08/1908, a date fairly easy to remember, isn’t it?

I hope this blog helped you in some way and please don’t forget to like and share it with your fellow aviators.If you want a specific topic to be addressed on the blog you can always email me at Until next week , stay safe and stay healthy .